Linux 常用命令解释

黎东
L、先森
2018-10-19 0 47

pwd:print work directory 打印当前目录 显示出当前工作目录的绝对路径


 ps: process status(进程状态,类似于windows的任务管理器) 


常用参数:-auxf 


 ps -auxf 显示进程状态


 df: disk free 其功能是显示磁盘可用空间数目信息及空间结点信息。换句话说,就是报告在任何安装的设备或目录中,还剩多少自由的空间。


du: Disk usage 


rpm:即RedHat Package Management,是RedHat的发明之一 


rmdir:Remove Directory(删除目录)


 rm:Remove(删除目录或文件)


 cat: concatenate 连锁


 cat file1file2>>file3 把文件1和文件2的内容联合起来放到file3中


 insmod: install module,载入模块


ln -s : link -soft 创建一个软链接,相当于创建一个快捷方式


mkdir:Make Directory(创建目录)


touch 


 man: Manual 


su:Swith user(切换用户)


cd:Change directory  


ls:List files  


ps:Process Status  


mkdir:Make directory  


rmdir:Remove directory  


mkfs: Make file system  


fsck:File system check  


uname: Unix name 


lsmod: List modules 


mv: Move file 


rm: Remove file 


cp: Copy file 


ln: Link files 


fg: Foreground 


bg: Background 


chown: Change owner 


chgrp: Change group


chmod: Change mode  


umount: Unmount 


dd: 本来应根据其功能描述“Convert an copy”命名为“cc”,但“cc”已经被用以代表“CComplier”,所以命名为“dd”


tar:Tape archive (磁带档案)


ldd:List dynamic dependencies  


insmod:Install module  


rmmod:Remove module  


lsmod:List module 


文件结尾的"rc"(如.bashrc、.xinitrc等):Resource configuration 


Knnxxx /Snnxxx(位于rcx.d目录下):K(Kill);S(Service);


nn(执行顺序号);xxx(服务标识)


.a(扩展名a):Archive,static library  


.so(扩展名so):Shared object,dynamically linked library  


.o(扩展名o):Object file,complied result of C/C++ source file  


RPM:Red hat package manager  


dpkg:Debian package manager 


apt:Advanced package tool(Debian或基于Debian的发行版中提供)


部分Linux命令缩写


bin = Binaries (二进制文件)


/dev = Devices (设备)


/etc = Etcetera (等等)


/lib = LIBrary  


/proc = Processes 


/sbin = Superuser Binaries (超级用户的二进制文件)


/tmp = Temporary (临时)


/usr = Unix Shared Resources 


/var = Variable (变量) 


FIFO = First In, First Out 


GRUB = GRand Unified Bootloader 


IFS= Internal Field Seperators 


LILO = LInux LOader 


MySQL = My 是最初作者女儿的名字,


SQL = Structured QueryLanguage  


PHP = Personal Home Page Tools = PHP HypertextPreprocessor 


PS = Prompt String     


Perl = "Pratical Extraction and Report Language"(实际的抽取和报告语言) ="Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister" 


Python 得名于电视剧Monty Python's Flying Circus 


Tcl = Tool Command Language  


Tk = ToolKit 


VT = Video Terminal 


YaST = Yet Another Setup Tool


apache = "a patchy" server 


apt = Advanced Packaging Tool 


ar = archiver 


as = assembler


awk = "Aho Weiberger and Kernighan"三个作者的姓的第一个字母


bash = Bourne Again SHell 


bc = Basic (Better) Calculator 


bg = BackGround 


biff = 作者HeidiStettner在U.C.Berkely养的一条狗,喜欢对邮递员汪汪叫。


cal = Calendar (日历)


cat = Catenate (链接)


cd = Change Directory 


chgrp = Change Group 


chmod = Change Mode 


chown = Change Owner 


chsh = Change Shell 


cmp = compare  


cobra = Common Object Request BrokerArchitecture 


comm = common 


cp = Copy 


cpio = CoPy In and Out


cpp = C Pre Processor 


cron = Chronos 希腊文时间


cups = Common Unix Printing System 


cvs = Current Version System 


daemon = Disk And Execution MONitor 


dc = Desk Calculator 


dd = Disk Dump (磁盘转储)


df = Disk Free 


diff = Difference 


dmesg = diagnostic message 


du = Disk Usage 


ed = editor 


egrep = Extended GREP 


elf = Extensible Linking Format 


elm = ELectronic Mail 


emacs = Editor MACroS 


eval = EVALuate 


ex = EXtended 


exec = EXECute (执行)


fd = file descriptors 


fg = ForeGround


fgrep = Fixed GREP 


fmt = format 


fsck = File System ChecK 


fstab = FileSystem TABle 


fvwm = F*** Virtual Window Manager 


gawk = GNU AWK 


gpg = GNU Privacy Guard 


groff = GNU troff 


hal = Hardware Abstraction Layer 


joe = Joe's Own Editor 


ksh = Korn SHell 


lame = Lame Ain't an MP3 Encoder 


lex = LEXical analyser 


lisp = LISt Processing = Lots of IrritatingSuperfluous Parentheses 


ln = Link


lpr = Line PRint 


ls = list 


lsof = LiSt Open Files 


m4 = Macro processor Version 4 


man = MANual pages 


mawk = Mike Brennan's AWK


mc = Midnight Commander 


mkfs = MaKe FileSystem 


mknod = Make Node 


motd = Message of The Day 


mozilla = MOsaic GodZILLa 


mtab = Mount TABle 


mv = Move 


nano = Nano's ANOther editor 


nawk = New AWK  


nl = Number of Lines 


nm = names 


nohup = No HangUP 


nroff = New ROFF 


od = Octal Dump 


passwd = Passwd


pg = pager 


pico = PIne's message COmposition editor 


pine = "Program for Internet News &Email" = "Pine is not Elm" 


ping = 拟声 又 = Packet Internet Grouper 


pirntcap = PRINTer CAPability 


popd = POP Directory


pr = pre 


printf = Print Formatted 


ps = Processes Status 


pty = pseudo tty 


pushd = PUSH Directory 


pwd = Print Working Directory 


rc = runcom = run command, rc还是plan9的shell 


rev = REVerse 


rm = ReMove  


rn = Read News 


roff = RunOFF 


rpm = RPM Package Manager = RedHat PackageManager 


rsh, rlogin, rvim中的


r = Remote 


rxvt = ouR XVT 


seamoneky = 我


sed = Stream Editor 


seq = SEQuence 


shar = Shell ARchive 


slrn = S-Lang rn 


ssh = Secure Shell


ssl = Secure Sockets Layer 


stty = Set TTY 


su = Substitute User 


svn = SubVersion 


tar = Tape ARchive 


tcsh = TENEX C shell  


tee = T (T形水管接口) 


telnet = TEminaL over Network 


termcap = terminal capability 


terminfo = terminal information 


tex = τέχνη的缩写,希腊文art 


tr = traslate 


troff = Typesetter new ROFF 


tsort = Topological SORT 


tty = TeleTypewriter 


twm = Tom's Window Manager 


tz = TimeZone 


udev = Userspace DEV 


ulimit = User's LIMIT 


umask = User's MASK 


uniq = UNIQue


i = VIsual = Very Inconvenient 


vim = Vi IMproved 


wall = write all 


wc = Word Count   


wine = WINE Is Not an Emulator 


xargs = eXtended ARGuments 


xdm = X Display Manager 


xlfd = X Logical Font Description 


xmms = X Multimedia System 


xrdb = X Resources DataBase 


xwd = X Window Dump 


yacc = yet another compiler compiler 


Fish = the Friendly Interactive SHell 


su = Switch User 


MIME = Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions 


ECMA = European Computer ManufacturersAssociation


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